The importance of internal and external disinfestation in dogs
The disinfestation is recommended for keeping your pet away from diseases caused by internal or external parasites. The external disinfestation combates parasites on the skin and fur of your dog (fleas, ticks, lices), while the internal one is useful for preventing weight loss, anemia, dirrhea or intestinal infection.
When establishing the vaccination schedule with your vet, is best to ask for recommendations about disinfestation in order to increase your dog’s life expectancy.
Cornelia Silaghi, veterinarian from Zalău (www.animalutze.3x.ro) recommends respecting the disinfestation plan for a healthy pet. She says we should start with internal disinfestation while the dog is still a puppy and continue with them every 3 months. Some puppies may not accept the medicine or they might vomite and in this situation we must use external treatment, explanes dr. Silaghi. On the other hand, the external disinfestation is made when the owner requires, once a month during spring to autumn or once every a few months when using collars.
The internal disinfestation can be made before the first vaccination and is needed for combating internal parasites which can be found in intestines, heart, lungs or other organs. „It can be done by giving pills, solutions or by using liqiud-like spot-on applied between the shoulders blades effective for both internal and external parasites” says dr.Cornelia Silaghi.
The first disinfestation can be made during the first visit at the vet, right before the first vaccination.„We can begin fighting internal parasites while puppies are very young, from two weeks, then at four weeks and it can be done perriodically until the puppy completes the vaccination scheme. After that, the disinfestation must be done all the dog’s life, every three months depending on infestation”.
This type of disinfestation is very important for the dog, because the parasites that are not removed, can migrate through the body and create numerous complications, intoxications or other health problems. „The animals can remain behind with growth and they can be weakened, despite being well fed” says dr. Silaghi.
The external disinfestation in dogs is recommended once a month during the warm season.The infestation with fleas, ticks or other parasites can be combated if the external disinfestation is properly done. „This can be done with solutions, spot-on liquid-like applied between the shoulders blades or with special collars” explains dr. Cornelia Silaghi. Two or three days before and after an external disinfestation, the dogs must not be bathed.
A dog already infested with parasires is restless and can be affected by dermatologycal problems or other complications. The external parasites are combated, in case of infestation, during 6-8 weeks depending on the products we use, but only with medical recommendation. The spot-on liquid-like pipettes are efficient for 1-2 months, while the collars are effective for 2-8 months, says dr. Silaghi.
WATCH OUT FOR THE TOXIC COLLARS !
The propoxur formulated pet collars containing even small doses of propoxur can be toxic for animals and people, according to The Natural Resources Defense Council from USA. The pesticide propoxur affects the nervous system of animals and can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or wheezing and in high amounts muscle spasms, respiration problems or even death. Flea collars formulated with propoxur are dangerous for children due to unsafe levels of pesticide residue left on pet fur during normal use.
A frequently encountered disease, not only during spring, is babesiosis. The rapid intervention of the veterinarian is very important and that’s why we thought we should present you a few notions and clinical signs that we, as dog lovers and owners, should take account of.
Babesiosis is part of the hemosporidiosis group (pyroplasmosis) –produced by protozoa, diseases that affect mainly the elements of blood on mammals and humans. The spreading of the parasites is conditioned by the dynamic of their hosts – the Ixodidae ticks.
In case of babesiosis, the parasite of the genus Babesia or Nuttallia infects and destroys the red blood cels of the host.
The sources of infection for this disease are the infected animals, the undiagnosed ones that have latent infection and the ixodid ticks, which are considered the reservoir of this parasite. The most common mode of transmission is by tick bite, while the ticks feeds and inoculates saliva through the skin.
The pathogenesis of babesiosis is extremely complex because the disease affects seriously the whole organsim.
The parasite gets into the red blood cells, they multiply and secret toxins that leed to the destruction of the red blood cells, resulting in anemia. Alte efecte ale acestor distrugeri masive se pot traduce ulterior si prin spleno- sau hepatomegalie. Ca reactie de aparare a organismului se poate integistra o crestere usoara a tensiunii arteriale, insotita de vasodilatatie si tahicardie.
In cazuri mai severe se pot inregistra edeme perivasculare si leziuni grave in encefal, cu manifestari nervoase, disfunctii hepatice si renale – icter, albuminurie, sau necroze si degenerari in organele afectate, etc.
Un organism trecut prin boala poate dobandi o imunitate activa – care se poate realiza si in urma administrarii unui vaccin – stare ce dureaza de la cateva luni, la cativa ani. Se mai poate dobandi imunitate si prin inoculare de ser de la animalele trecute deja prin boala – imunitate considerata pasiva.
Moartea animalului in cazul complicarii bolii survine ca urmare a anemiei si toxicitatii grave.
Dintre modificarile anatomopatologice, in functie de forma bolii, putem mentiona: icter, splenomegalie, hepatomegalie, hipertrofie renala, hemoragii gastro-intestinale, edem cerebral (in faza acuta), cahexie, anemie, reducere drastica a musculaturii (faza cronica).
Simptomatologie – perioada de incubatie este de 7-14 zile, boala prezentand diferente clinice in functie de specia afectata.
La caine, forma acuta debuteaza cu apatie, febra, anorexie, icter, anemie, posibile tulburari respiratorii si nervoase (crize tip epilepsie, pseudoparaplegie), fotofobie cu posibile hemoragii retiniene. Moartea se poate produce la 5-10 zile de la imbolnavire. In forma cronica, care persista timp de cateva saptamani, se inregistreaza anemie si slabire accentuata.
Diagnosticul se stabileste in functie de datele epidemiologice, datele clinice, leziunile prezente in unele organe (splina, ficat, miocard, rinichi), examen microscopic (frotiuri din sangele periferic), examen serologic sau diagnostic terapeutic (prin medicatie corespunzatoare si obtinerea unor rezultate pozitive).
La animalele tinere prognosticul este favorabil.
Tratamentul babesiozei este complex, si se asociaza in general cu un regim alimentar dietetic, precum si cu conditii deosebite de igiena. La caine se administreaza Berenil, (sol. 7%, 3 mg/kg, intramuscular), Imidocarb (Imizol) (sol. 12%, 6 mg/kg, subcutan), Acaprin (sol. 0,5%, 0,2 mg/kg, subcutan), Lomidine (4 mg/kg, intramuscular).
Profilaxia bolii se realizeaza prin controlul preventiv si descapusarea animalelor, mentinerea unei igiene corespunzatoare in adapostul animalului, aplicarea tratamentelor acaricide, etc.
Sursa : daisy-vet.ro
Scris de Dr. Foianu Daniela